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Gıda Sektöründe Metal Ambalaj

International Journal of Humanities and Art Researches March 2024 Spring Term Pages: [52-64]
Öğr.Gör.. Gültekin ERDAL
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10828954

Abstract


Packaging materials used in the food industry have various shapes and a wide range of functions. Selection of the most suitable packaging depends on many factors, especially the type of food that needs to be protected. In this sense, it can be said that significant progress has been made in food packaging in recent years and that metal packaging has made a significant contribution. In their simplest definition, metals are chemical elements with "metallic properties" or "metals properties." Such chemical elements include luster, thermal structure, electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, crystal structure, magnetization, and the ability to be permanently shaped or deformed at room temperature. There are many types of metals, even in their most typical forms. Metal is widely used as packaging and production material in many areas of industry. Especially in the packaging sector: industrial oil, paint, chemical substance boxes, two and three-piece canned food, tomato paste, oil, cheese, etc. Packaging many industrial products, such as food and beverage cans, provides significant advantages. The food packaging system emerged due to increasing global foodborne epidemics and related health and safety concerns. In this sense, packaging technology is essential to have information about the environment in which the shelf life of food products must be extended to optimize the entire packaging system because the structure and material of the packaging play an important role in determining the life of the food. The correct selection of packaging materials and technologies preserves the product's quality and freshness during distribution and storage. Among the materials traditionally used in food packaging, metals (aluminum, foils and laminates, tinplate, and tin-free steel) come first. Biobased packaging materials have a lower environmental impact than petroleum-based materials. Still, their properties must be well formulated to encourage industry use so much that packaging requires information about available materials, food, distribution system, shelf life, and environmental impact.

Almost the majority of materials used in food packaging are metals. Elements used in food packaging are used in very pure form (aluminum) and metal alloys (steel, tinplate). Therefore, the production of food packaging products starts from mined ores and then refined to extract the metal. The initial concentration of the mineral and how it is formed will directly affect the costs associated with the final material.

The most commonly used metals include elements and alloys such as aluminum, copper, steel, silver, brass, bronze, lead, tin, zinc, and gold. Almost every metal except gold and silver is used in the packaging industry. The most commonly used material in metal can production is undoubtedly steel. Metal boxes produced from different types of steel sheets are used as packaging for various products. Aluminum is used in the packaging of both carbonated and still beverages. Protecting processed food items is both a priority and a difficult task in terms of packaging. Regardless of the type of metal, metal packaging is advantageous in this regard. Metal packaging protects 100 percent oxygen, moisture, and light. It also has a structure that can prevent the entry of external parasites. In this regard, the safety of all kinds of metal eliminates the need to use gold and silver. Using precious metals other than those initially produced or ordered may not be economical for the investor.

This article investigates the place and importance of metal as packaging in daily life. Metal packaging can often be a lifesaver, especially in sensitive sectors such as food. So much so that in the food industry, metal packaging provides healthy product protection and a significant advantage in long-term storage. In this article, the history of metal packaging, which has become an indispensable material in food packaging, its development process, and its place in the food industry are researched and exemplified. It explains why metal packaging is preferred, especially in the food industry, its advantages, and what health precautions are taken before packaging. Is it advantageous if the metal can be quickly machined, shaped, polished, or secured with various finishes? Although not every metal element can be used in the packaging industry, alloying and coating methods can increase usage. The article discusses safe and hygienic packaging and explains its advantages to food packaging.

Metal packaging may be subjected to different closing processes than other packaging materials, depending on the type and characteristics of the food to be packaged. For example, many foods with a long shelf life, such as canned, tomato paste, or pickled foods, are sealed under different ambient pressures or vacuum. On the other hand, beer and carbonated beverage packages are sealed only by filling them under pressure. Another essential feature that makes metal packaging special is the processing after the packaging is filled and the lid is closed. For example, while soft drinks do not undergo further processing after packaging, beer is usually pasteurized in the can. Many foods are filled hot and cooked in metal packaging under various conditions. This process is essential because it can provide a long shelf life without preservatives. A five-year shelf life for canned goods is not surprising. Sterilization processes are controlled to ensure microbiological safety throughout the intended shelf life.

Finally, considering the ease of collecting metallic waste (due to magnetic behavior and high-density values) and the possibility of thermal recycling without any loss, the advantages of metal packaging appear to be more significant.

Özet


Metal, sanayinin birçok alanında hem ambalaj hem de üretim malzemesi olarak yoğun kullanılır. Özellikle endüstriyel yağ, boya, kimyasal madde sanayinde, iki ve üç parçalı konserve, salça, yağ, peynir vb. gıda ve içecek ve meşrubat sanayi ambalajlamasında yoğun kullanılır. Ayrıca kolay açılır kapakların, aerosol kutularının, dekoratif kutuların, oyuncak ve kırtasiye gereçleri gibi birçok endüstriyel ürünün ambalajlamasında önemli avantaj sağlar.

Günümüzde altın ve gümüş dışında hemen her metal, ambalaj sanayinde kullanılmaktadır. Metal kutu üretiminde en çok kullanılan malzeme şüphesiz çeliktir. Farklı tip çelik levhalardan üretilen metal kutular, çeşitli ürünlerin ambalajı olarak kullanılır. Metalin en fazla kullanılan ikinci türü olan alüminyum hem gazlı hem de gazsız içeceklerin ambalajı olarak kullanılır. Aynı şekilde işlenmiş gıda maddelerini korumak, alüminyum malzemeli ambalajların zor işlerinden biridir. Metal ambalaj, metalin türüne bakmaksızın bu konuda avantajlıdır. Çünkü metal ambalaj; oksijeni, rutubeti ve ışığı yüzde yüz oranında tutar. Aynı zamanda dış parazitlerin içeri girmesini mutlak suretle engelleyebilir yapıdadır. Bu açıdan metalin her türünün güvenli olması, altın ve gümüş gibi metallerin kullanılmasına ihtiyaç bırakmamaktadır. Zaten böylesine değerli metallerin, özel yapım veya sipariş dışında kullanılması, yatırımcısı için ekonomik olmayabilir.

Bu makale ile metalin ambalaj olarak günlük yaşantıda yeri ve önemi araştırılmıştır. Özellikle de gıda gibi hassas sektörde metal ambalaj, çoğu zaman can simidi olmuştur. Öyle ki gıda sektöründe metal ambalaj, ürünün sadece sağlıklı korunmasını sağlamakla kalmaz, onun uzun vadede saklanmasında da büyük avantaj sağlar. Bu makale ile gıda ambalajlamasında önemli bir malzeme haline gelen metal ambalajın kısa tarihi, gelişim süreci, gıda sektöründeki yeri araştırılmış ve örneklendirilmiştir. Metal ambalajın özellikle gıda sektöründe neden tercih edildiği, ne tür avantajları olduğu ve ambalaj öncesinde nasıl bir sağlık önlemine tabi olduğu anlatılmıştır.


Keywords:
Food, packaging, metal, metal packaging.
Anahtar Kelimeler:
Gıda, ambalaj, metal, metal ambalaj.

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Submitted at: 2024-03-19 15:44:56
Accepted at: 2024-03-19 15:47:33
To Journal: March 2024 Spring Term

Author Details:
Gültekin,ERDAL ORCID:0000-0003-0425-6196 Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi TBMYO Grafik Tasarım Programı

To Reference: ERDAL, Gültekin (2024), Gıda Sektöründe Metal Ambalaj . International Journal of Humanities and Art Researches,Mart 2024, Issue:1, Volume:9, Pages:52-64

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